Beliefs Related to Allah
Aqeeda # 1
Allah Ta`ala, with His ever-existent Being and Qualities is existent by Himself. Besides Him every other thing came into existence by His doing. By His creation every other thing came into being from non-existence into existence.The reason for calling Allah Ta`ala,>Khuda= is because He is there by Himself (>Khud Ba Khud= - Urdu). His Being is Himself. Besides His Being and Qualities, every other thing in the universe is newly created, from non-existence into existence.
It is for this reason that no thing in the universe remains in one state. It is clear from the fact that these things are targets for changes and alterations and things are on course in disintegrating, disappearing and appearing, this proves that this universe is not existent by itself. In fact its existence and bringing into creation is the work of another Being. Hence, that Great Being, Who is responsible for bringing everything into existence, and Who is the Owner thereof, is the One we call Allaah, Khuda and Owner of the universe. The original and real Owner is He Alone, in Whose Majestic control is the existence of the entire universe. Understand well that He is the real Owner, the Owner of creation. That one who is not the owner of creation cannot be the real owner.
Also, whatever one=s sight falls upon from the things in this universe, it has the effects of dependancy, insignificance, lowness and helplessness. This will affirm that nothing in this universe is existent by itself. If anything was existent by itself then it would be >Khuda=, and it would not be dependant upon anything. Allama Ahmed Bin Miskoyah mentions in his Kitaab, AAlfowzul Asghar@: If you look at anything from the sky down to the earth, you will not find nothing that is free from movement (i.e. it is stagnant). There are six types of movements; movement of existence (movement within itself), a troubled movement, a movement of growth, a destructive movement, a changing movement and a movement of place. These things can also be seen by the eye, that all movements are not the same. From this we gather that the movement of anything is not by virtue of itself or choice, in fact it is administered thereupon, by something that is separate from its being. Hence the real Administrator, by whose actions all these movements occur, is >Khuda= (Allah Ta`ala), who through the means of this >puppet show= displays and exhibits His Absolute Power and Control.
A Refutation to the Deniers Of Allah Ta'ala (Atheists)
It is a well known historical fact that since the beginning of creation until present times, almost every person accepted the existence of a Creator. (Almost) Every religion, creed and community are unanimous on this fact that there exists a Creator. And that He had created this universe by His Choice and Will.
The group that believes in matter (that everything came into existence by itself), who are also known as atheists, refute and reject the existence of a Creator. They claim that there is no reality and truth in the existence of Allaah. They claim that the existence of a Creator is restricted to the minds of man, who had made this up. They claim that man has unnecessarily transferred the control of their actions, speech and conditions, in fact the creation of the entire universe to a supposed Being (Nauthoobillah!). They say that it is unnecessary for man to believe in a Great Being. They say that man has resorted to believing in a Super Being due to his fear of the natural occurrences in the universe. They say that there is no necessity to believe in a Creator, simply because of the changes and occurrences that take place in the universe. They say that matter is also existent from time immemorial, and so is its movement and changes. By saying matter they refer to the smallest particles known to man which are called microbes and atoms etc. They claim that regular changes occur in these micro-particles and over time they give rise to things which make up this universe.
Recent (scientific) research has shown that both the celestial and earthly things that exist in the universe, are essentially constructed from two constituents; matter and its movements. Both these were always existent and they are inextricable. One cannot exist without the other, just like a result is effected by the cause without its choice or intention, so too did this entire universe come into existence. The sky, earth, stars, trees, planets, vegetation, etc., etc. all came into being owing to matter and its movements. For this reason they claim that they do not have to believe in a Creator, nor do have a need for one. They thereby free themselves from (what they believe to be) the clutches and restrictions of adhering to any religion. They do not believe in a Creator and they firmly accept that matter and its resultant effects are the cause of the existence of this universe.
This, then is the claim of the atheists which you have just read, which besides their imagination and estimation amounts to nothing else. It is a completely haughty and arrogant claim, which comprises of absolutely no solid proof.
We, the worshippers of a Creator, say to the atheists that their reasoning for the existence of this universe is nothing else besides an empty claim and fancy imagination. They do not have a shred of evidence for their claim, and we have not found any success in understanding the crux of the matter ( by their explanations) as to how this universe came into existence. We would like to know this, that whatever exists in this universe, all the wonderful and strange occurrences that take place with all their secrets and mysteries, which even the experts of science and research cannot fathom - who brought all this and how did all this come into existence? Give us the exact cause for all these effects to take place. One group says this that the perfect administration and regulation of this universe, speaks for itself, by testifying that our Creator and >Supervisor= is an extremely Knowledgeable, Wise, Powerful and Mighty Being.
The atheists claim that this universe is the result of matter and its coincidental and accidental movements. They also acknowledge that matter is deaf, dumb, blind and without any sensory perception. It (matter) cannot speak, hear, see or think. No action of it is done by its own intention or design. It has no knowledge of planning or designing. Matter is also not bound to any fixed system or strategy. And yet this entire universe with all its beauty and perfect system came into existence by itself ?!?
The atheists have taken the deaf, dumb and blind matter as their creator of this universe. They grovel at the feet of an insensitive thing and worship it although they do not call it their god. The worshippers of A Creator say that to accept matter and its coincidental and accidental movements as the result of the existence of this universe is as follows:
The Example of a Beautifully Penned Book
For example if a person looks at a book which is beautifully penned, i.e. the calligraphy and contents of this book is extremely beautiful and eloquent, and this person says that all this is not the work of an experienced and expert author and calligrapher, but rather it is the result of ink and its coincidental and accidental movements.
The Example of a Royal Palace
If a person looks at a beautiful palace, which has numerous spacious and impressive rooms, the carpets and light fittings are extremely beautiful, the springs and fountains that grace the gardens are equally as beautiful, and this person says that all this is not the work of an expert engineer and builders, but rather it is the result of the coincidental and accidental mixing of sand and water. This mixture of sand and water gave rise to this beautiful structure, its beautiful interior and lovely garden, all of which came there by themselves. Which person who has any intelligence would accept such drivel? Anyone who talks in this fashion would surely be classified insane.
The Example of a Watch
If one looks at a watch and one observes all the intricate parts thereof, and when one takes note of the accurateness which its movements take place and how it functions so meticulously, then one naturally comes to the conclusion that this is the result and the work of an expert watch-maker. If someone claims that a blind, deaf and dumb person, who has no knowledge or understanding of watch-making, is the one who constructed this watch, then any intelligent human will never accept this statement.
Alternatively if one claims that a watch is not the work of an expert watch-maker, but that it is the result of the coincidental and accidental movements of matter which gave rise to this form of a watch, and then after further movements of this matter, all the intricacies of the watch was formed, and then all these parts got together by themselves and started functioning, and it gives accurate time. Any listener to this type of drivel will have no other alternative but to burst out laughing.
Which intelligent person can accept that this entire universe with all its intricacies and wonders is the result of the blind and accidental movements of matter?
Our question to you is the following: >According to you, all this variety and objects (in the universe), are all new, because they were all non-existent previously and then they came into existence later( as science has proven). This then is the reality of a new thing. So if the reason for the existence of this new variety is the ever-existent matter, and its constant and continuous movements, then it follows that all this variety and objects also have to be ever-existent, because since the reason is ever-existent, then the result should also be ever-existent. Yes, if you say that all this variety and objects came about by the choice and intention of matter, then we can say that the resultant effect by the choice of an ever-existent thing is something that is newly created and was never present. However, even you concede that matter does not have any life or senses. So how can all this (universe and its constituents) be newly created?
In short, no rational and intelligent mind can accept that a lifeless thing such as matter which has no senses, is responsible for the creation of this entire universe and all its wonders, and that this system will continue for always.
The Example of a Place
When one looks at a space, then without any deep contemplation, one will come to this conclusion that there MUST be a Creator for all this. Will one not come to this definite conclusion that the Creator of this space whose floor is the earth and ceiling the sky, is a Most Powerful, Knowledgeable, All-Knowing and Wise Being?
The question now remains that who is this Creator and where is He? It will be very foolish and asinine to aver that one cannot believe merely because one cannot see. Seeing is not a condition for believing. Everyone accepts the existence of the mind and soul, but to date no one has ever seen the mind or soul with their naked eye. Not seeing something does not negate its existence. The mind issues a decree behind its veil, and people bow down to this order with heads lowered. Nobody ever says that since we have not seen the mind we cannot accept any of its orders. Scientists must tell us if they ever witnessed matter and its movements, (which according to them is the reason for this entire creation). They have never done so nor will they ever do so. They claim that since they cannot see a thing they will not believe therein. Where then is this principle of theirs, whereby they deny the existence of Allah Ta`ala. It is due to these type of principles that they deny the existence of the Aakhiraat (Hereafter), and they have no proof for this denial.
Those people who are besotted with the acceptance of (only) the visible and perceptible, and are not acquainted with insight and contemplation, believe that nothing can be created without other things. Just like how one human being cannot be born except through another human being or one animal through the medium of another. In the same way they feel that this universe came into existence because of the interaction of matter and not that it was created from total non-existence.
This contention is completely incorrect. These people have based their reasoning and rationale of Allah Ta`ala on that of human beings, in that just as a carpenter or a potter is dependant upon wood and clay respectively, in order to make furniture or pottery, so too, Nauthubillaah, is Allah Ta`ala dependant upon matter for the bringing into existence of this universe.
These people also accept that the non-static and constantly changing things of this universe, like figures, lines, embellishments, designs and decorations are not the product of any (solid) thing (matter), in fact, they are things which have come into existence from a state of non-existence. So if these things have come into existence without the interference of man and they are created without the medium of matter, then why is it that they cannot accept that the Beauty and Being of Allah Ta`ala is Ever-Existent and will always be in Existence?
We now understand that this concept that anything that is existent must be created from something else that is also existent is Baatil (rejected). It is for this reason that to create and bring into existence is the Special Quality of Allah Ta`ala. To create a thing would mean to bring it into existence from non-existence.
This entire universe was first non-existent and then with the Word from Allah Ta`ala, AKun@ (Be),it came into existence. This is the Power of Allah Ta`ala that He brings into existence without any means.
Once a group of atheists came to Imaam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullahi alaih) with the intention of killing him. Imaam Saheb asked them what they would say about a person who claims that he sees a ship laden with goods sailing on the sea, and it takes the goods from one end to another. This ship navigates the waves perfectly and there is no sailor (captain) to steer the ship. The goods get loaded on and off the ship by itself. They replied that this is such a nonsensical contention that no sane human would accept it. Imaam Saheb told them : APity upon your intelligence. If a ship cannot sail and operate without a sailor, how can this entire universe operate without an operator?@ Upon hearing this all of them were embarrassed and they repented and accepted Islaam at Imaam Saheb=s hands.
Someone once asked Hadhrat Imaam Maalik (rahmatullahi alaih) for the proof of a Creator. He replied by indicating towards the face and said that the face of man is small, and yet it consists of eyes, nose, ears, tongue, cheeks, lips, etc.,etc. Notwithstanding this, no two persons faces are the same. The voices, mannerisms, habits, etc. of each person is unique. In short, the fact that every person=s features and profiles are not alike, nor are their voices, tones, habits and characters alike, proves that all this is definitely the work of a Supreme Creator, Who has blessed each person with his/her own uniqueness, which differs from others. This can never be the work of insensitive matter or molecules.
An atheist asked Imaam Shaafi (rahmatullahi alaih) for the proof of a Creator. He said that one must look at the leaves of a mulberry tree. The taste, colour, and smell of all of them are alike, but when a silk-worm eats therefrom, then silk is produced and when a bee eats therefrom, then honey is made and when a sheep eats therefrom, then it ejects it as droppings and if a deer eats therefrom, then it produces musk. All this different things are made from one and the same source. It is obvious that all these different products are the result of an All-Knowing, Most Powerful Creator. These are certainly not the result of >natural= occurrences. If it were, then the result would have all been the same.
Aqeeda # 2
Allah Ta`ala is one. None is His partner or equal, because a partnership is a deficiency and Allah Ta`ala is free from all faults.Also, a partnership is desirable when one is incapable or not self-sufficient, and this is a fault. This would be the antithesis of Divine Existence. And since, HE is independent and capable, then the need for a partner would be superfluous and in vain, and whatever is in vain and wasteful is NOT Allah Ta`ala. Hence, in order to establish and accept a partnership, one has to accept that one of the partners (on his own) is insufficient and incapable. This is the negation of Divinity. In short, we understand that (in this case) by trying to prove a partnership, the opposite is being achieved. Hence, we accept that for Allah Ta`ala to have a partnership is impossible. Now, when we have established that Allah Ta`ala has no partner, then it follows that He has no son, daughter, parents or any other being similar to HIM either. For example, if we accept that Zaid is the son of his father, then although father and son may not look alike, nevertheless, we will still say that Zaid has a connection with the human species. So, if it is said that Allah Ta`ala has a son, then one has to accept that this son is also divine and has a connection with a Divine Being. Then this son would also be a Allaah like our Allaah (Nauthubillah!).
It is for this reason that Allah Ta`ala says in the Qur`aan Majeed:
APure and free is HE (Allaah), from that He has a son.@
Aqeeda # 3
Allaah Subhaanahu Wa Ta`ala is Ever-existent and Eternal, i.e. neither does He have any beginning nor end. He is purely eternal.
AHe is The First and the Last@, Besides Him there is NO other thing which can be established to be ever-existent and eternal. Imaam Ghazali (rahmatullahi alaih) has denounced the claim of those people who aver that matter, features, intelligence and the sky are ever-existent. The fact of the matter is this that besides Allah Ta`ala, nothing else is eternal, because nothing in the universe (besides Allah Ta`ala) is free from any fault or flaw.
Matter is completely deaf, dumb and blind. The soul (of man), besides its name, nothing else is known about it (to man). Knowledge and perception of the soul is unattainable (by man), hence a thing which is unattainable and of which one has no knowledge, cannot be eternal or ever-existent. If the soul was ever-existent, by itself, then calamities, difficulties, pain, sorrows and grief would most certainly never have affected it. Even a dim-witted person would understand that how can pain and difficulties ever affect a thing which is ever-existent, since all these things are new and were created later. Everything in the universe was created by Allaah Rabbul Izzat.
Aqeeda # 4
Life, knowledge, power, intention, hearing, seeing, speaking and creation, are all the perfect and complete Attributes and Qualities of Allah Ta`ala. That is, HE is Alive, Intelligent, has full Power and full choice. Whatever He does, is by His choice. He is All Knowing and Most Knowledgeable.
There is no atom or speck in this universe that is outside His knowledge, control or hidden from Him. He listens to every thing=s voice and call, whether it is in the heavens or the earth. He even hears the sound of the movements of the smallest ant that moves beneath the seven earths. He hears the sound of the entire universe at one and the same time. The sound of one thing does not overcome or interrupt the sound of another, in HIS hearing. He sees everything in the universe at one and the same time. No screen or darkness can ever separate HIS sight from it. He can speak and is not dumb. He is THE Creator, i.e. He has the ability and quality to create and bring things into existence. Whoever HE wishes He gives life and whoever He wishes He gives death. To bestow honour or to disgrace is totally in HIS Control.
All these complete and perfect Qualities belong to Allah Ta`ala ALONE, and it is for this reason that all the strange and wonderful things in this universe bear testimony to HIM. It is clear that all the creation is not the work and craftsmanship of a some dead, ignorant and incapable thing, rather it is all the work of A Being that is Alive, Knowledgeable, Powerful and Most Wise.
These qualities (life, knowledge, power, intention, hearing, seeing, speech, creation) are also present in the creation. According to all intellectuals these qualities (in man) are perfect. So, if these qualities were not perfect in the Creator, then how could it ever be in the creation? Allah Ta`ala has placed a sign of these perfect qualities in man so that when he reflects upon himself then he will recognise his Creator. He will realise that these perfect qualities that are found within himself are merely a reflection of the perfection of Allah Ta`ala. In actual fact, the qualities that are found in man are not even comparable to those found in Allah Ta`ala. The similarity is confined to the words.
NOTE: One should know that there are two types of qualities: The first type is intrinsic (Zaatia) and the second the practical form (Fe`lia). The intrinsic qualities (Sifaat-e-Zaatia) are those that cannot exist together with their opposites in one being, for example, knowledge and power. Allah Ta`ala has theses to qualities in Him, and He does not have their opposite qualities, which are ignorance and weakness. That is, Nauthubillah, we will never say that Allah Ta`ala is dead, ignorant, weak, helpless, deaf, blind and dumb, because death, ignorance, etc. are all faults and shortcomings, of which the Being of Allah Ta`ala is free and pure.
The practical form of qualities are those qualities, which do exist in a being with their opposites, and they are in relation to others (i.e. their connection is with other things besides the Being in which they exist). For example, to give life and death, to bestow honour and disgrace, to grant sustenance and not to, etc. Such qualities are called Sifaat-e-Fe`lia.
Where a Being can be described as having both the opposites at the same time, then this Sifaat-e-Fe`lia is included in the Sifat-e-Takweeni (quality of creation). It is as though the quality of creation is the summary of all this (Sifaat-e-Fe`lia), and they are its exegesis. If Allah Ta`ala did not have this quality of creation, then this entire universe and all its beauties, intricacies and wonders would not have come into existence.
Allah Ta`ala says: AIndeed HIS order (is such that) when HE intends a thing, He (merely) says >Be= and it is. Allah Ta`ala is not in need of any raw materials and products. Takween means to create merely by the use of the word ABe@.
Aqeeda # 5
Allah Ta`ala is knowledgeable in every group and individual. There is not a single particle that exists in the skies or the earths that is beyond His Knowledge.
It follows that since Allah Ta`ala has created everything, He must necessarily be aware of it all. It is not possible that the creator of a thing is unaware of its existence. ADo they know who has created? It is the Most Subtle and All-Knowing@ Some unfortunate and stupid people (philosophers, etc.) are such that they do not accept that Allah Ta`ala is aware of everything and yet they understand their own stupidity to be perfect thinking.
The quality of Knowledge: This is an eternal and all-encompassing quality of Allaah Azza Wa Jall. He is fully aware of the various conditions and opposing factors of everything in the universe at one and the same time. His knowledge encompasses every aspect of the universe. At any given moment He knows whether Zaid is alive or non-existent, sick or healthy, honourable or disgraced, etc., etc. Since time immemorial until eternity, His Knowledge is so all-encompassing that there never is, was or will be even the slightest change or adulteration.
When a person can identify at one and the same time the different types and conditions of a word, that is at any given time one can identify whether a word is a noun or verb or conjunction, whether it is a three-letter word or a four letter word, whether it is a declinable or non-declinable word, etc., etc. When a person can identify in detail the condition and type of one word at the same time, then can it ever be possible that the Most Knowledgeable, All-Knowing, All-Encompassing not know about the various different conditions and specifications of the entire universe at one and the same time?
Nothing of the future and past, and every other aspect of time and place, is out of the quality of Allah Ta`ala. His quality of Knowledge in unlimited. Everything in the Knowledge of Allah Ta`ala is encompassed all the time.
Aqeeda # 6
Allah Ta`ala is Omni-potent. He is free from being forced or coerced (into doing any act).
Imaam Rabbaani (rahmatullahi alaih) has mentioned that the philosophers, due to their stupidity and ignorance, have understood the need for consent and to be forced as a sign of perfection and have negated the intervention of Allah Ta`ala (in the creation of things). These idiots have taken the Ever-Existent to be useless and ineffectual. They have attributed the creation of things to something other than Allah Ta`ala, which is merely a figment of their imagination. They have no relation to the Being of Allah Ta`ala. Hence at the time of difficulty and adversities, these ignoramuses should seek refuge in their imaginary creator, and not turn to Allah Ta`ala. They have not linked and related the first creation of the universe to Allah Ta`ala.
According to them, Allah Ta`ala does not have a choice in actions, in fact they believe Him to be subservient to asking for consent and force. They believe that HE does not have the ability to ward off calamities, hence their asking Him for help would be futile and of no benefit.
This deviant group (philosophers) belie, deny, mock and scoff at the Divine revelations.
When the message of the Nabuwwat of Hadhrat Isaa (alaihi salaam) reached Plato, who was the leader of the philosophers, he commented:
AWe are a nation that is guided, we have no need for a guide (or teacher).@
This idiot should have gone an met Hadhrat Isaa (alaihi salaam) and witnessed first-hand how he (with the Order of Allah Ta`ala) used to make the dead alive, cure the born blind and lepers. Plato made this statement without any investigations into the personality of Hadhrat Isaa (alaihi salaam). This proves his pride and arrogance.
Aqeeda # 7
Just as all the elements, like jewels, organs, bodies, brains, skies, earths, stars, planets, etc. were created by The Most-Powerful, and all of them were brought from non-existence into existence, so too, was their effects, specialities and qualities, brought from non-existence into existence.
If anything is wide, then it is owing to His creation. If some thing is made up of different constituents, then also it is owing to His creation. If any element is hot, then it is so owing to His command and if any element is cold then it is so owing to His creation. Just like how fire and water are bestowed by Him, the heat in fire and the coolness in water are all owing to His creation. Nothing can be hot or cold merely on its own doing. In short, the being and qualities and their specialities of everything is only possible through Allah Ta`ala. Just as Allah Ta`ala is the Master of the creation of the elements, i. e, that when He desires He brings it onto existence, so too, is He the Master of the specialities and qualities of these elements. When He desires then He may remove the quality of an element. For example, If He wishes to remove the quality of heat from fire for any special and chosen servant of His, then He has the ability to do it. He has full control of creating the ability of heat in fire or to remove that same quality.
The quality, ability and speciality of everything is created by only Him. It is not that Allah Ta`ala created the fire and the quality of heat came on its own in fire. In fact, He is responsible for creating this quality in the fire. It is not that Allah Ta`ala created man and the qualities of discernment and senses came about in man on their own. These qualities in man are also the creation of Allah Ta`ala. All these qualities are completely subservient to the Will and Command of Allah Ta`ala. It projects neither too much nor too little, but rather in exactly the required amount desired by Allah Ta`ala. If Allah Ta`ala wills, fire will burn, otherwise not. Just as the creation of the qualities of everything is dependant upon the Will and creation of Allah Ta`ala, so too is their existence and continuity. As long as Allah Ta`ala desires the quality of thing lasts, it will do so. When He decides it to be removed, it will be removed.
Just as an intelligent person sees the reaction of any mineral, and he intelligently concludes that the resultant effect of this mineral was not due to its own doing but rather it was due to its reaction with another, similarly, any intelligent and wise person, when he sees all the occurrences and movements of the universe will naturally conclude that all this is not occurring on its own, but rather it is done through the intervention and creation of some Doer. All these occurrences are in actual fact a concealment of the actual Creator.
Aqeeda # 8
Allah Ta`ala is the creator of good and evil, as well. Whilst He has created both, He prefers the good over the evil./p>
Darkness and light, cleanliness and filth, angels and devils, pious and impious, all are His creations. He prefers the pious(good) over the impious(bad). There is a very fine line of difference between (having a) choice and (Divine) pleasure, to which He has guided the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat. All the other sects have not recognised this difference and they have been led into deviation.
Aqeeda # 9
Just as Allah Ta`ala is the creator of human beings, so too is He is the Creator of their characters, habits, qualities and actions. These actions, be they good or bad, are all in the Taqdeer, control and knowledge of Allah Ta`ala.
Nevertheless, He is pleased with good and displeased with evil. One must remember this and remember well, that to attribute only evil to Allah Ta`ala is contrary to respect and etiquette. It is inappropriate to (only) say that Allah Ta`ala is the Creator of evil, it will be more befitting to say that He is the Creator of good and evil. One should say that Allah Ta`ala is the Creator of everything. One should never (only) say that Allah Ta`ala is the Creator of filth and pigs, etc. It is wholly disrespectful and sacrilegious to attribute such things (alone) to Allah Ta`ala, Who is a Pure Being. In short, just as the servants are the creation of Allah Ta`ala, so too are their actions the creation of Allah Ta`ala. However, some actions of man are voluntary, which come into being with the order of Allah Ta`ala, and others are involuntary, which occur without man=s intention or will, and without his intervention, like the hand of a person who shakes from shaking palsy. In this shaking there is no intention, nor desire of the person for it, hence this is known as an involuntary action. When the doer desires for an action and he initiates it, then it is known as a voluntary action, for example, when one stretches the hand to make musafaha (handshake), or one lifts his hand to strike someone out of anger. These are voluntary actions.
Just like how a person sees with the eyes given to him by Allah Ta`ala, and he hears with the ears given to him by Allah Ta`ala, so too does he carry out actions by the power and ability given to him by Allah Ta`ala. All these actions of man, although they are created by Allah Ta`ala, and they come into existence by His Will and Decree, however, since they are voluntary by man, and through these actions he carries out good actions, therefore he is compensated for it. If he does any evil action, then he will be punished for it. The Mu`tazilas and Qadarias (deviant sects), hold this belief, that man has the full control of his actions and man is the creator of the same. The Jabaria (another deviant sect) hold this belief, that man has absolutely no control of his actions, whatever man does is not out of his own choice, just like how the movements of a tree or stone occur, so too do the actions of man. Hence, their belief is that man will not be taken to task or punished for any evil actions, but he will be compensated for good actions. According to them the sinners and the Kuffaar are all excusable and they will not be questioned.
The Ahlus Sunnat Wal Jamaat say that both these beliefs are wrong and incorrect. The belief of the Qadarias and Mu`tazilas is incorrect because man does not have the ability to create his own actions. It is impossible for man to bring a non-existent thing into existence. Also, the Pure Being of Allah Ta`ala, Who has no partner is also free from this that there can be partners to His exclusive Quality of creating. He Alone has the quality of creation. As Allah Ta`ala says: ADo they ascribe partners to Allaah, that they (can) create like how He creates. They are equating the creation to Him. Say! Allaah is the Creator of everything. He is One, Most Powerful.@
The helplessness of man is such that he cannot even utter the letter >meem= from the throat or the letter >ain= from the lips. With such a profound debility, how can the quality of creation be attributed to man? The belief of the Jabaria is incorrect because it is contrary to common sense and logic. Therefore, all intellectuals are unanimous on this point that actions are of two categories; voluntary and involuntary. They also agree on this point that whoever carries out a voluntary good action, he will receive a reward, and whoever carries out a voluntary evil action, should be punished. The Jabaria sect oppose this differentiation and categorisation of actions. According to them all actions are involuntary and no action is voluntary.
The trustworthy, protectors and protagonists of any land are rewarded and the rebels are imprisoned and punished. The thieves and evil people are imprisoned for a while and have to undergo a trail of suffering. If there was no system of reward or punishment in this world for good and evil actions then this world would have been absolutely destroyed and devastated long ago. When this system of rewarding the good and punishing the evil is acceptable and commended as being justice by the temporary governments of this world, then how come there is a doubt and objection to this system with regard to Allah Ta`ala, Who is the Best Judge amongst judges. If a thief is caught stealing and he offers he following excuse that he was forced to commit the crime and it was an involuntary actions on his part, then he will be told that he is lying and if he was forced, then how come he left his home? Can we say that it is an involuntary action to come out at night and break someone=s lock or break down his door? If man can be subservient to the temporary justice of man, how can he not be subservient to the eternal and perfect Justice of Allah Ta`ala? The Ahlus Sunnat Wal Jamaat say that these two views, that man is completely in control and that he is completely helpless, are unacceptable and incorrect, and they are contrary to common sense and logic. He Straight Path is the one that goes between the excesses. That is that man is neither completely in control (of his actions) nor is he completely helpless, in fact we are in between being forced and having full choice. Logically as well, this is the Truth, because the view of the Jabaria that man is completely helpless and incapable of intention and choice, is contrary to common sense and real life. who does not know that man has the quality of choice and intention? Every person knows that his/her actions are not like that of a stone. The movements of a stone are done without its choice and intervention, whereas man has a choice and intention in his/ her actions.
Now that it is established that man has choice and intention, then there are now two possibilities. Either this choice is fixed and unshakeable or it is fixed to only this level that Allah Ta`ala=s Will has no play in a person=s kufr and Imaan. This is the Mazhab of the Qadarias.
The second possibility is this that man has choice and intention. But this intention and choice is not fixed and firm, rather it is subservient to the Desire and Will of Allah Ta`ala. This is the Mazhab of the Ahlus Sunnat Wal Jamaat. Logically and rationally, this is the truth. Because for a person to have such full and fixed control over his choice, that is not subservient to Allah Ta`ala, is impossible. When the mere existence, qualities and character of man is not fixed but completely subservient to the Will and Desire of Allah Ta`ala, then how can the quality of power and choice be fixed in man? Allah Ta`ala says:AAnd you do not desire, except that which Allah Ta`ala, Rabbul Aalameen, Desires.@
From this we deduce that man has desire and choice, but this is limited to and under the control of Allah Ta`ala. Therefore, the Ahlus Sunnat Wal Jamaat say that man is in between being totally in control or under control. In a way, he has a choice, therefore he is able to carry out actions by choice and intention. He is not totally helpless, but he also has no choice in this choice. Just like a how a person has the choice to see and listen, however, he has no choice in the ability of hearing and seeing. In the same way, man has choice in his actions, but he has no choice in this choice, in fact he is helpless in his having a choice. When a person carries out an action through this Allaah given choice, then in the Shariah we say it is >Kasab= (earned). Allah Ta`ala is the Creator of actions and He brings it into existence. Man is the earner, actor and doer of the actions. This earning and acting is sufficient to warrant reward or punishment. For the weak, a weak choice is appropriate, and a full and complete choice is appropriate for The Creator and not the created.
The difference between the Qadaria and the Ahlus Sunnat Wal Jamaat is this that the Qadarias claim that man has fixed and total choice over his actions, and we say that this choice is not full or fixed. We take the middle path and say that man=s choice is between full choice and no choice, and this is what we call in the Shariah earning and acting. In the Qur`aan Majeed, Allah Ta`ala has in all places attributed the quality of creation exclusively to Himself, and earning and acting (carrying out actions) to His servants.
And Allaah created you and you carry out the actions.@ In this Aayat, Allah Ta`ala attributes the quality of creation to Himself and the carrier out of the actions is man. There is absolutely no doubt that every action of man comes into being by the Knowledge and Will of Allah Ta`ala. However, Allah Ta`ala has also granted a certain amount of power and ability to man, whereby man carries out actions and he becomes worthy of reward for it or punishment in this world. Similarly, he will be rewarded or punished for his actions in the Aakhiraat (Hereafter).
Aqeeda # 10
Fate and Divine Decree is Haqq (Truth), and it is Fardh (obligatory) to believe in it.
To bring Imaan in Divine Decree means that one should believe that Allah Ta`ala had predestined for mankind even before their creation, the good and the bad, Imaan and kufr, guidance and deviation, and obedience and disobedience, and all this has been recorded. Now whatever occurs in this universe, is doing so at the behest and wish of Allah Ta`ala. Also whatever happens, Allah Ta`ala knew about it in its entirety even before its occurrence. The dictionary meaning of Taqdeer is to measure or estimate. That occurrence that happens by desire and intention, is done with full understanding and measure. For example, a person wants to build a house. First a plan will be drawn so that the walls etc. of the house can conform to some set standard.
In the same way, when Allah Ta`ala intended to bring this universe into existence, He first set out a plan in His infinite Wisdom and Knowledge, and He measured each and everything from the time of inception until the end. Hence this >design= and >plan= of Allah Ta`ala is known as Taqdeer. Allah Ta`ala, in His infinite Wisdom and Knowledge had already meted out that at a certain time a certain occurrence will happen at a certain place, or that a person after his birth will bring Imaan at a certain time, or that a person after his birth at a certain time will make kufr, etc., etc. As Allah Ta`ala says: AIndeed Allaah had made everything in measure.@ Taqdeer is that Allah Ta`ala measured out everything of this universe even before its creation. Qadha (Fate) is that Allah Ta`ala created and brought into existence everything according to His plan and measure. The dictionary meaning of Qadha is to create. As Allah Ta`ala says: AAnd He created in them seven skies.@
Hence the unanimous belief of the Ahlus Sunnat Wal Jamaat is that Fate and Decree are Haqq. There is not an atom (or even the smallest particle) which is beyond the Taqdeer of Allah Ta`ala. No one has the ability or potential to ward of or evade His Decree. Or even to delay it or expedite it. Whoever He wishes, He grants guidance to and whoever He wishes He leads him astray. There will never be any questioning Him or asking for explanation. However, He will question His bondmen regarding their actions. They will then be rewarded or punished for their good deeds or their evil actions. Nevertheless, Allah Ta`ala=s Decree and fate is Haqq. There can never be any chance of mistakes or miscalculations in His Actions. A human will first draw a plan prior to building a house, and Allah Ta`ala had planned this universe prior to His creating it, but between the planning and knowledge of man and that of Allah Ta`ala is a vast difference. The difference is that man, due to some obstruction or the other, may have to change or alter his originally intended plans, hence the planning and knowledge of man can be incorrect and deficient. But when Allah Ta`ala intends to do something, there is nothing that will or can ever prevent Him, because the planning and Taqdeer of Allah Ta`ala can never be incorrect or deficient. His intentions always come into being and none can prevent it. Also, the knowledge of man is extremely deficient. There are many things that man only comes to know about after he had drawn up his plans, therefore, there will be a difference between the plan of man and the outcome. And the Knowledge of Allah Ta`ala, because it is All-Encompassing, therefore there will never be a difference between the plan and the outcome of Allah Ta`ala.
The Taqdeer of Allah Ta`ala is Haqq. It is Fardh to bring Imaan in it. It is incorrect to present Taqdeer as an excuse to our actions and deeds. For example, a man steals or commits Zina (adultery), and then he makes the excuse that this was written in his Taqdeer. This excuse of his is unacceptable and insufficient to avert punishment from him. Indeed, Allah Ta`ala has decreed everything, but you did not have any knowledge thereof. When you had stolen or committed Zina, then you did so purely out of nafsaani(inner) desires and to satisfy yourself. At that moment you were unaware as to what was decreed for you. This is all an excuse, you have no knowledge of Taqdeer. You committed this act voluntarily and by purpose. You were not forced into doing it, in fact you expanded your effort, strength, desire and gratification, hence for anyone to say that he/she was compelled by Taqdeer to carry out a certain act is a lie and deception. The bondsman is not bound or compelled by Allah Ta`ala or Taqdeer. Whatever the servant of Allaah does, he does so of his own intention and accord, even though this intention and thought is made possible by Allah Ta`ala, nevertheless, the servant has the choice of carrying out the action, he is not forced. Now remains the contention that since it is impossible for the servant to act contrary to Taqdeer, is not this a form of being forced? No this is not the case. Allah Ta`ala=s Knowledge and planning is complete and flawless. There can never be a mistake in the Taqdeer of Allah Ta`ala. Hence, to act contrary to this Taqdeer is impossible. Taqdeer is the information and >data= of Allah Ta`ala. Knowledge follows that which is known. Information and data is something that follows what is related and transmitted, and it conforms to the reality. What is known does not follow the knowledge of it and what occurs and the reality of a situation does not follow the information and data of that incident. Just like how Allah Ta`ala has the knowledge of our actions and deeds, so too has He the Knowledge of His actions. Nevertheless, Allah Ta`ala does not force anyone on account of His knowledge. In this way, understand that the servant is not forced due to Allah Ta`ala=s knowledge or Taqdeer. Allah Ta`ala=s Knowledge is on its place and the servant is on his place. In this world a person is not regarded as being forced. If people were being forced, then the governments would not need to make prisons for the transgressors. Allah Ta`ala had granted His bondsmen choice and ability, whereby he conducts his Deeni and worldly affairs. But, this choice of the servant is not with him by choice. Just like how a person has eyes and ears, not by choice but the actions he does with the eyes (looking) and ears (listening) are done by his choice. In a similar way, a person makes a choice to do something and he has the ability granted to him to carry it out, by his own choice. It is for this reason that it is said that a person has no choice in his qualities, but he has choice in his actions.
To believe that Allah Ta`ala is the Creator of man=s actions, movements and animations does not necessarily mean that these movements are out of man=s choice and power, because Allah Ta`ala has created both the power and the one who has the power. He has created both the choice and the one who has the choice. Power is one of the qualities of man, which Allah Ta`ala had created and Allah Ta`ala has created both man and his qualities. All this is in His Control. If man carries out an action through this Allaah given quality of power of his, then according to all learned men, this is by his (man=s) choice, and not an involuntary action. In short, we say that the existence of man, his actions and qualities, although we relate all this to Allah Ta`ala, does not mean that man is helpless.
Allah Ta`ala=s Power and Will is connected to the existence of man, but owing to this connection man does not become obliterated. In a similar way, by Allah Ta`ala=s Power and Will being connected to man=s power and choice does not make man helpless. Man is however the servant and the creation of Allah Ta`ala. It is not possible for the creation=s existence and qualities to supercede the Encompassing Power and Will of the Creator. Those who aver that man is the creator of his own actions and that (Nauthubillah!) man=s actions have no relation to the Power and Will of Allah Ta`ala, are trying to say that the creation can supercede the Creator=s Power and Will. The entire Ummat unanimously agree that AWhatever Allah Ta`ala Wills comes to pass and whatever He does not Will does not occur.@
The Mu`tazilas believe that the actions of the servant are excluded from the Will of Allah Ta`ala. LA HOWLA WA LA QUWWATA ILLA BILLA HIL ALIYIL AZEEM.
Allah Ta`ala has created this universe with different things in it, the size and shape of everything is different for one another. The ability of each thing also differs from the next. Take the example of a tree which has thousand different types of wood, some are used for burning, others for making wooden boards, others for roofing, etc., etc. Everyone agrees that if everything in this universe had the same qualities and conditions, then this universe would not be able to function properly and smoothly.
Now remains the contention that why are the abilities of everything different. This answer has still not been fathomed until today.
Muslims say that all this is in the Wisdom of the All-Knowing and All-Wise. The atheists say that all these different abilities are due to the movements of the blind and deaf matter.
Just as Allah Ta`ala, in His Infinite Wisdom has created the abilities and shapes of trees and stones different from one another,He has also created the abilities of man different from one another. Some He made intelligent and sagacious, whilst others He made stupid and ignorant. Some He made susceptible to the Haqq and others to kufr. He made the heart of some clean and clear, whilst that of others are black and dark. ANone can ask about what He does, whilst they are all answerable.@
An Objection and its Answer
The objection is that the actions and speech of man is dependant upon their respective abilities. And all this is pre-destined, and not in the power of man, hence why is there an indictment against the Kuffaar, when they are in actual fact helpless and without choice.
Allah Ta`ala has created two types of creations. Some are those which Allah Ta`ala did not give any knowledge or (intelligent) qualities, like trees and stones. This type of creation will have no questioning or retribution. They will not be rewarded or punished. The other type of creation is that one on whom Allah Ta`ala placed intelligence and choice, like man and jinn. For this creation Allah Ta`ala granted them intelligence, choice and power. They have also been given limbs and organs, whereby they willingly carry out actions, and these actions are attributed to them. For example, they say that we have done this action with our hands, or that >I have said this=, or >I did that=, etc., etc. They accept and agree that whatever (worldly) reward or recompense is due upon them for any action carried out, is for them and that they deserve it. But when it comes to reward or punishment in the Hereafter they say that we are helpless. They do not realise that Allah Ta`ala has granted them intelligence and choice in this world so that they may follow and carry out the Commands of Allah Ta`ala, and then be liable for either reward or punishment. Just like how in this world one is merely rewarded because of his ability and potential, so too is a person not punished in the Hereafter simply due to his ability. Reward and punishment will be meted out only after one carries out good or bad actions.
A person is not rewarded merely because he is brave and strong. He has to go out into the ring and prove himself. In a similar way, a person will not be rewarded (by Allah Ta`ala) merely on account of his ability. He must carry out actions that will warrant a suitable retribution.
Aqeeda # 11
Allah Ta`ala is a Speaker.
From time immemorial until eternity, Allah Ta`ala had the ability to speak, never once was He ever without this quality. At any given time, He can listen to the entire creation and reply to each one=s du`aas and requests. He is never unwary or kept occupied, whilst attending from one side to the other. The Tawraah, Injeel, Zaboor, Qur`aan Majeed and all other Divine Scriptures are all manifestations and descriptions of His Speech. The Speech of Allah Ta`ala is one and encompassing. All Divinely revealed Books and Scriptures are pages of His encompassing Speech, that have various effects in their revelations.
Speech is a complete quality of perfection and dumbness is a fault. All perfect qualities are established for Allah Ta`ala, and He is free and pure from all qualities of fault. Since Speech is an inherent quality of Allah Ta`ala, it is eternal (always was existent) and is not newly acquired. The quality of an eternal Being is also eternal. Some Bid`atees have this view that Allah Ta`ala is >Mutakallim= (Speaker) in this sense that He creates speech in others. This view is clear and open ignorance and stupidity. It smacks of misunderstanding of the Arabic language. The word >Mutaharrik= (something that moves), according to the dictionary means something that has the quality of movement. Something that makes other things move is not called >Mutaharrik=, hence the Creator of speech is not called >Mutakallim=. One should understand that the Speech of Allah Ta`ala is unlike the speech of others. The entire Muslim Ummat is unanimous on this that Allah Ta`ala speaks. However the difference of opinion arises in the reality and type of speech.
Some say that the Speech of Allah Ta`ala does not comprise of words and sound. The Speech of Allah Ta`ala is a quality of His that is part of His Being, it has neither words nor sound. The Arabic text and calligraphy that we see in the Kitaabs is merely a manifestation and proof of His Eternal Speech, which is a means that allows us to read and listen to his Eternal Speech. The words and letters that allows us to read and listen to Allah Ta`ala=s eternal Speech is just a covering and clothing for it. It is not the actual Speech. Rationally speaking this explanation is understandable, that an eternal thing can manifest itself in a newly created thing. A new thing cannot contain an eternal thing, but a new thing can be used as a mirror to reflect the qualities of an eternal thing. The sky can be reflected and seen through the pupil of the eye, but the sky can never be contained in the eye. The Auliyaa and Aarifeen are unanimous that the Speech of Allah Ta`ala is inherent to His Being and does not have words or sound. The Muhadditheen say that the Speech of Allah Ta`ala has words and sound, but these words and sounds are unlike the word s and sounds that are found in the universe. Just like how the Being of Allah Ta`ala is incomparable, so too is His Speech. AThere is nothing like Him.@
The Mutakallimeen say that just as the Being of Allah Ta`ala is unique and incomparable, so too is His quality of Speech. There can be no connection between Him and His created universe. Allah Ta`ala makes use of the Arabic language as a medium for His servants to understand Him. Words and sounds are a covering for His Speech. Language is a mirror and manifestation to His Speech. The Aayats of the Qur`aan, which are made up of words are also a mirror of Allah Ta`ala=s Speech. Therefore according to the Shariah it is Waajib to have respect and to honour the Qur`aan. It cannot be touched without wudhu.
Its recitation should also be carried out with utmost respect. Therefore the Arabic recitation (of the Qur`aan) is a cloth for His incomparable eternal Speech. Understand that Allah Ta`ala=s unique and incomparable Speech is hidden and concealed behind this veil. The Arabic recitation is not the actual Eternal Speech, infact it is a covering. Allah Ta`ala KNOWS BEST.
Aqeeda # 12
The Qur`aan Majeed is the speech of Allah Ta`ala. It is eternal and uncreated. Allah Ta`ala has referred to the Qur`aan as His Speech and has linked it to Himself.
There is a unanimous consensus of the Ummat on this that the Qur`aan Shareef is the Speech of Allaah Ta`la and it is His quality. Allah Ta`ala is eternal in all His Qualities. There was no difference of opinion during the first era of Islaam that the Qur`aan is uncreated, even the predecessors after the era of the Sahaabah were unanimous that the Qur`aan is not a creation. Allah Ta`ala says: A Indeed Our Speech to a thing when We desire it, then We say to it >Be= and it is.@
Therefore if everything is created by the word ABe@ then it should be understood that these words and this Speech of Allaah Ta`al is not a creation. Otherwise to create this word another word ABe@ would be necessary. And for the second one a third would be necessary. This will continue into infinity. Hence it is established that the Speech of Allah Ta`ala is not a creation.
Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (radhiAllaahu anhu) says regarding the Aayat : A The Arabic Qur`aan, in it there is no crookedness@, indicates that the Qur`aan is not a creation. ABecause there is no creation except that crookedness is found in it.@
Also Allah Ta`ala says regarding the Qur`aan Shareef that there is no crookedness in it. Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (radhiAllaahu anhu) once heard a person saying at the Kaaba AO Rabb of the Qur`aan@. Then Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (radhiAllaahu anhu) said ADo not let your tongue utter such words, indeed everything that is been nourished (Marboob) is a creation, and the Qur`aan is uncreated.@
Also, if the Qur`aan is a creation then it would be possible to find its equivalent. Imaan Rabbani Mujjaddid Alfa Thaani (rahmatullahi alaih) said: The Qur`aan Majeed is the Speech of Allah Ta`ala, which He has clothed with words and sounds and revealed it upon our Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam). In it He has addressed His servants with Commands and prohibitions. Just as we would bring to the fore our own speech by means of effort and the tongue, similarly our hidden object and aim is brought to the fore .In the same way Allah Ta`ala has clothed His own Speech in words and sounds without the use of effort or tongue, merely by His perfect Power. In this way he has revealed it upon His servants and through the means of words and sounds He has made known His object. Therefore both types of speech that is His Own Speech and worded speech, are in reality the Speech of Allah Ta`ala. Just like the two types of our speech, own and worded are in reality one speech. Not that the first type (own) is literal and the second type (worded) is figurative. Because a sign of figurative is that it is permissible to negate it and (thereby) negate worded speech. And not to regard it as Allah Ta`ala=s speech is undoubtedly Kufr. Like it is mentioned in the Qur`aan that the Kuffaar say : AThis (Qur`aan) is but the speech of man.@
Also if the Qur`aan was a creation then it would be possible to bring a similarity to it. And since it is not possible to bring anything similar to the Qur`aan then in should be understood that it is eternal and uncreated. Allah Ta`ala says : AThey listen to the Speech of Allaah and then they change it.@ The crux is that just like worded speech, own speech is also in reality speech. Like Allah Ta`ala says: AThey say to themselves why does Allaah not punish us for what we say.@ ALower your speech or make it loud.@ Hadhrat Omar (RadhiAllaahu anhu) said on the day of Saqeefah: AI prepared some speech in my mind.@
From these texts it is clear that both, worded speech and own speech, are in reality refer to as speech. One should know that the speech of Allah Ta`ala is based in two meanings. Firstly, Speech is Allah Ta`ala=s encompassing Quality, that is connected to the Being of Allah Ta`ala. There is no doubt on its being eternal. The second meaning is that by saying Speech, those words of Allah Ta`ala are meant which He has spoken. The Qur`aan is referred to as the Speech of Allah Ta`ala in this meaning. This Qur`aan is the Speech of Allah Ta`ala that was revealed upon Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam), that we recite with our tongues and listen to with our ears and memorise in our hearts and is written on our pages. It is eternal and uncreated. However, the recitation of the Qur`aan and its listening to and its writing is new and created, because this recitation and listening and writing are the doings of the servants. The actions of the servants are new and created actions. This is the view held by Imaam Bukhari and other Ulama-e-Muhaqqiqeen (rahmatullahi alaihim).
Imaam Zehli=s (rahmatullahi alaih) view is that the person who says that the words of the Qur`aan are new, that is the recitation and the listening to the Qur`aan is new, then that person is a Bid`atee.
The object of Imaam Bukhari (rahmatullahi alaih) was to differentiate between the Quality of Allah Ta`ala and the action of the slave.
Aqeeda # 13
Allaah Rabbul Izzat is free and pure from all faults, deficiencies and innovations. He is not restricted to a body or matter. Neither to place nor time. He is free from temporary qualities and limbs. In His existence, there is no consideration of place or time. All this are creations of His.
Aqeeda # 14
Allah Ta`ala is not united with anything, nor is anything united with Him.
Neither is He transmigrated with anything nor is anything transmigrated with Him. According to the Christians, Allah Ta`ala was transmigrated into Hadhrat Isaa (alaihi salaam). According to the Hindus, Allah Ta`ala is transmigrated into humans, animals, trees and plants. Saamiri (person during the time of Hadhrat Moosa - alaihi salaam) also held the view that Allah Ta`ala had transmigrated into the calf. The Saamiriyaan Hindus who worship the cow are the followers of the same Egyptian Saamiri. The custom of the >untouchables= practised by the Hindus is also an offshoot of the Qur`aanic phrase of ALaa Misaas@, which applies to Saamiri.
Imaam Raazi (rahmatullahi alaih) has written regarding Saamiri, that he was from amongst those who held the view that Allah Ta`ala transmigrates into another form. It is for this reason that the Hindus in India also follow this belief. In fact they are more stalwart that Saamiri, because it was never reported that Saamiri drank the urine of a cow. The cow and buffalo are (words of) personifications used for stupidity, hence if one wants to refer to another as being stupid he will say AYou buffalo!@. Just look at the Hindus! Firstly, they have chosen an animal as their deity, and then to top it, they have chosen that animal which is used as a personification for stupidity. From this perspective, (that the deity is used to describe stupidity), the slave (Hindus) is superior to the deity (cow / buffalo), whereas, it is not supposed to be possible for the servant to be more better and perfect than the deity.
Aqeeda # 15
There is no equal and similarity to Allah Ta`ala.
He has no wife or children. In His Qualities and Being, He is without any similarity, equal or comparable. This much we know that Allah Ta`ala is an embodiment of ALL perfect Qualities. Whatever comes to our (small) minds and imaginations, Allah Ta`ala is free from that and supercedes everything.
Aqeeda # 16
Nothing is binding upon Allah Ta`ala. Wujoob (necessity) is something that can never apply to Allah Ta`ala.
Who or what is there that can impose something upon Allah Ta`ala? The Mu`tazilas aver that it is binding upon Allah Ta`ala to consider for His slaves those things which are good and beneficial, otherwise (they say) miserliness will apply (to Allah Ta`ala). This view is due to the Mu`tazilas deficient intelligence and disrespect for Allah Ta`ala. Miserliness means to withhold a necessary right. There is no right due upon Allah Ta`ala. He is Master and has all choice. Neither is compassion binding upon Him nor is Force. Whoever He wishes, He will guide and whoever He wishes, He will lead astray. There can be nothing more beneficial or better than guidance, but even that is not binding upon Allah Ta`ala. It is for this reason, that Allah Ta`ala says: AIf (Allaah) desires, then He will guide all of you.@
However, because of some Wisdom, Allah Ta`ala has not granted guidance to everyone. From this we deduce that to grant guidance is not binding upon Allah Ta`ala. If Allah Ta`ala, owing to His Mercy, grants guidance to anyone, then it is not binding upon Him to grant reward to that person. If He grants reward then it is owing to His Mercy and Kindness. If He gives punishment, then it will be due to His justice. In short, there is no right that is due upon Allah Ta`ala. Yes, The Most Merciful of all those who show mercy and The Most Honourable, owing to His magnanimous Mercy and Kindness, has said that the believing people have this right that they be granted Jannat, and that they be granted reward (for their good actions).
The necessity of Jannat and reward for the believers is because of Allah Ta`ala=s promise, and not because they deserve it or are worthy of it. Guidance is also the Mercy of Allah Ta`ala, and it is due to His Taufeeq that people bring Imaan and they carry out good actions, with the limbs, power and intellect granted by Him. This is all the Benevolence of Allah Ta`ala. He is the One who has granted the Guidance and He is the One who has promised Jannat. AAnd this is through the Mercy of Allah Ta`ala, which He grants to whomever He wishes.@
Aqeeda # 17
Allah Ta`ala is the Master and He has full choice.
The creation are His bondsmen and servants. Whatever He does with them or orders them with is in reality goodness and full of wisdom. He is free and pure from oppression and mischief. If He desires to place all of mankind into Jahannum and let them always be punished, then there can never be any reason or right for objection. He is the absolute Master over everything. Whatever, we own is in actual fact not really in our ownership. It was all given to us by Allah Ta`ala. Our actions with regard to whatever has been placed in our ownership is restricted to whatever He orders us with. If a human, in this figurative ownership of his, decides to slaughter an animal, for no apparent reason, that is in his ownership, then this will be permissible and not be regarded as oppression. So then if Allah Ta`ala, who is the Absolute Master, decides to punish a slave of His for no apparent reason or sin, then this will nor be considered as oppression. Oppression is actually means to abuse something which belongs to someone else, and it is very clear that there is nothing that is beyond of the ownership of Allah Ta`ala.
The meaning of the Aayat: AIndeed Allah Ta`ala does not oppress, even equal to the amount of an atom@, is that no action of Allah Ta`ala can ever be regarded as oppression. Neither can an action of Allah Ta`ala , be it literally or figuratively, ever be regarded as being oppression.
Yes, the promise made by Allah Ta`ala of reward or punishment, will most certainly be fulfilled. There will never be any turning back on this promise. AIndeed Allah Ta`ala never reneges on His promise, and who can be more truthful than Allaah in his speech?@
However, one must remember this, the promise (of Allah Ta`ala) for the reward that will be granted for obedience will be carried out owing to Allah Ta`ala choice alone. That is, He will enter the believers into Jannat owing to His Power, Mercy and choice. They will not be entered into Jannat due to some force (on Allah Ta`ala). It is a sign of perfection to complete one=s promise owing to one=s own choice and power, and not that one completes one=s promise due to some force and necessity. If a king can carry out his promise because of his choice and power and not because he is bound to do so, and cannot do contrary to it, then what can be said of the Most Just, when he fulfills His promise with regard to the believers and the kuffaar? Can it be said that Allah Ta`ala is bound to fulfil His promise after He has made it, and that it is beyond His ability to act contrary to this? I seek protection in Allaah, indeed Allah Ta`ala has Absolute Power over everything.
Without doubt, Allah Ta`ala has the Power to place His friends into Jahannum and His enemies into Jannat. But, he will never ever do so, because He has made a promise, and AIndeed Allaah never reneges on His promises.@
On the Day of Qiyaamah, when Allah Ta`ala will question the people who had taken Hadhrat Isaa and his mother (alaihima salaam) as deities, then at the end, Hadhrat Isaa (alaihi salaam) will make an entreaty to Allah Ta`ala, saying: AIf You punish them, then indeed (You have all the right, because) they are Your servants, and if You forgive them, (then also You have all the right) because You are Most Beneficent, Most Wise.@ In other words, if Allah Ta`ala desires, then He may punish and if He wishes, then He may forgive. There is no action of Allah Ta`ala that is free from Wisdom. If Allah Ta`ala desires to forgive these transgressors, then in this act there is certainly wisdom and it will be correct. And if Allah Ta`ala desires to punish them, then in this act there will be justice. In the statement of Hadhrat Isaa (alaihi salaam) AIndeed You are Most Beneficent, Most Wise@, there is a clear indication that it is within the Power and ability of Allah Ta`ala to forgive even the worst transgressor. And if Allah Ta`ala does so then in it will be wisdom and it will be correct. AHe will not be questioned for what He does, but they will be questioned@.
The Stages of Qualities and the Ambiguous Qualities
The Qualities of Allah Ta`ala that are enumerated in the Qur`aan Shareef and the Ahaadith are of two types. The first are those whose meanings and imports are clear and easily understood, like Knowledge, Power, Choice, Speech, etc., etc. Such Qualities are known as ASifaat-e- Muhkimaat@ and ASifaat-e- Waadihaat@. Regarding these, there is a consensus amongst the Ahle Haqq that it is necessary and binding upon us to believe and accept these Qualities upon their apparent meanings. It is not permissible to offer any interpretations regarding the meanings of any of these Qualities.
The second type, are those in which there is no clarity and certainty with regard to their meaning. Besides the words and dictionary meaning there is no definite certainty to their meanings. There is no room or authority for conjecture and opinions. Examples for these types of Qualities are; >Face= (of Allah Ta`ala), >Hand=, >Soul=, >Eye=, >Feet=, >Fingers= and Allah Ta`ala=s being established on His Throne. Such types of Qualities are known as >Sifaat-e-Mutashaabihaat=. Regarding these Qualities there are three groups; first the Qadaria and Mu`tazila, second the Mujissima and Mushabbiha, and thirdly the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat.
The Mushabbiha sect is also known as the Mujassima sect. They have opted for the literal meanings to these Qualities of Allah Ta`ala, and they have gone to such an extent that they aver that Allah Ta`ala has limbs and body parts, like face, hands, feet, etc., etc. And they aver that Allah Ta`ala sits on His Throne just like how a king sits on a throne. This sect has turned a blind eye and pleaded ignorance to the Aayaat; AThere is nothing like Him@, AThere is no equal to Him@, And for Allaah is the highest example@, etc. They regard Allah Ta`ala as having a body and form.
This sect has taken the exact opposite view of the Mushabbiha sect. They regard these Qualities as being completely figurative in meaning, so much so that they refute these Qualities and Names of Allah Ta`ala. Without any real proof, they have resorted to making all sorts of interpretations for these words. For example, wherever the word >hand= appears in the Qur`aan or Hadith for Allah Ta`ala, they interpret it as >Power= or >Ability=. Sometimes they interpret it as a >blessing=. The Qur`aan Majeed, itself, according to the context of the Aayaat, renders such interpretations as Faasid and incorrect. The word >hand= at time appears in the dual form, implying two hands. As Allah Ta`ala says: AWhat prevents you (O shaitaan) that you prostrate to that which I have created with My two hands?@
In this Aayat, to regard the meaning of >hand= as Power would be incorrect, since the Aayat talks of two hands and Allah Ta`ala=s Power is One. It would be incorrect to say that Allah Ta`ala has two Powers. Secondly, this Aayat portrays the superiority and honour of Hadhrat Aadam (alaihi salaam), in that Allah Ta`ala says he created him with His two hands, therefore why do you (shaitaan) not make sajdah to him. If the meaning of >hand= was Power, then it would not show any honour to Hadhrat Aadam (alaihi salaam), since shaitaan was also created through the Power of Allah Ta`ala. In fact, all the creation was created through the Power of Allah Ta`ala. What then would be so special of Hadhrat Aadam (alaihi salaam)? Everything and everybody was created with the Power of Allah Ta`ala. In the same way to interpret the word >hand= to mean >blessings= would also be incorrect, since the blessings of Allah Ta`ala cannot be restricted to one or two, they are numerous. In short, just like the Mushabbiha=s this Mu`tazila sect is also astray.
Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat
This the group on Haqq. They say that the sects of the past are all wrong and deviated. The Mushabbiha sects seem to deny the Aayat AThere is nothing like Him@, and the Mu`tazila sect seem to deny the Aayats of Mutashaabihaat. It is clear that both these sects are on the path of deviation. The Ahle Haqq say that the truth is this that we accept these qualities for Allah Ta`ala and no effort will be made to unravel the reality of it through conjecture, opinion, Akashf@ and Ailhaam@. As these qualities of Mutashaabihaat appear in the Qur`aan and Sunnat, we accept them as they are without any investigations. We do not interpret them as do the Mu`tazilas, so that we do not become deniers of the qualities of Mutashaabihaat as the Qadarias and Mu`tazilas and we do not say like the Mushabbihas and the Mujassamas that, Nauthubillah, Allah Ta`ala has limbs and organs. We also do not say that Allah Ta`ala sits on His Throne.
Those qualities which Allah Ta`ala attributes to Himself in the Qur`aan and Hadith, we believe in it and we hand over the reality of their meanings to Allah Ta`ala. Allah Ta`ala is All Hearing and All Seeing. However, His Listening and Seeing is not like our listening and seeing. In the same way His Hand and Feet is unlike our hands an feet. The Ahle Haqq have not gone to the extreme like the Mu`tazilas on the one hand and the Mushabbihas on the other. We have taken the middle path. It is the belief of all the pious predecessors and the four Imaams of Fiqh. Imaam Abu Hanifa (rahmatullah alaih) says: AWhen Allah Ta`ala mentions in the Qur`aan about (His) Face, Hands, Soul, Eyes, thus they are His Qualities. It is not said that His Hand signifies His Power and Blessings, because indeed in it is negation of His Qualities, and this is the belief of the Qadarias and Mu`tazilas. But His Hand is His Quality without any form....@.
This is also reported from Imaam Maalik, Imaam Shaafi and Imaam Hambal (rahmatullah alaihim) and the Aimmah of Hadith. It is extremely difficult for a weak, incapable human being who has limited speech and understanding to properly explain the Perfect and Excellent Qualities of Allaah Rabbul Izzat, Most High, Most Powerful, Most Mighty. We can say this much that from the possibilities, these Qualities are the best and highest possible. We establish them for Allah Ta`ala. And when we are faced with two words that have opposite meanings then we will use for Allah Ta`ala the more appropriate one, which will be the better and higher of the two. If for example we have existent and non-existent, powerful and weak, knowledgeable and ignorant, etc., and other such opposing meaning words then we will use the higher of the two for Allah Ta`ala, like Existent, Powerful, Knowledgeable, etc.
And we hold this belief that it is not possible for us to praise Him more than that. His Pure Bieng has no similarity. AThere is nothing like Him and He is All Hearing All Seeing@.
And because we are not aware of the proper etiquettes for describing Devine Qualities therefore, we will use those words to describe the Greatness of Allaah which Rasulullaah (sAllaahu alaihi wasallam) had shown us.
Aqeeda # 18
The Names of Allah Ta`ala are Divinely revealed.
That is they are dependent on us hearing them from Sahib-e-Shariah. According to the Shariah, we can use that Name of Allah Ta`ala according to the type suitable with the Being of Allah Ta`ala. It is not permissible to use such a Name that will be inappropriate with the Being of Allah Ta`ala even if it appears rationally correct. For example, we can say that Allah Ta`ala is Shaafi (the One who Cures), but we cannot say He is the doctor. The reason is that the names, Jowwaad (Most Generous), Shaafi (One who cures) and Aalim (All-Knowing) do exist for Allah Ta`ala and not the names sakhi (generous), doctor and aaqil (intelligent). One must keep in mind that this discussion refers only to those Names of Allah Ta`ala which are used to describe His Qualities and Actions, and not to the names that apply to His very Being. The Being of Allah Ta`ala can be described in any language, except those names /words that are specially used by the kuffaar. One should not call unto Allah Ta`ala in those names, since there is a fear of kufr in that and also disrepect.
Aqeeda # 19
The Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat are unanimous on this that the Qualities of Allah Ta`ala are neither beings on their own nor are they separate entities (from Allah Ta`ala), because a quality is not the actual thing that is being described.
Therefore, if a person says that his deity, his creator and his Sustainer is Allah Ta`ala=s Quality of Knowledge and Quality of Power. If a person says that he worships a certain Quality of Allah Ta`ala, then also, all these statements are baatil (false/spurious). Yes, if a person says that my Deity is The All-Knowing and Most Powerful, (One who has the Quality of Knowledge and Power), than this is correct.
In the same way, it will be impermissible for one to say in a du`aa: AYaa Hayaat (O Life), Yaa Ilm (O Knowledge), Yaa Tarzeeq (O Sustenance)@. One must know that the Qualities of Allah Ta`ala are NOT the qualities themselves neither are they separate entities, that they can be separated from the Being of Allah Ta`ala. Allah Ta`ala and His Qualities are not separate entities from each other. In fact it is such that it is impossible for the Qualities of Allah Ta`ala to be separated from His Being. Like we say that four is an even number and five an odd, does not mean that four is something else and even is another separate thing. when talking of even and odd numbers, then four is necessarily an even number and five will be odd. One word (four) cannot be separated from the other (even). These words will naturally be combined.
In the Qur`aan Shareef, Allah Ta`ala has made His Qualities >mudaaf= (shown possession) to Himself. Example, AIlmihi@ (His Knowledge), etc. From this we gauge that these Qualities of Allah Ta`ala are not entities on their own, rather they are connected to Allah Ta`ala. When Allah Ta`ala gives the order to worship Him, He says : AU`budillaah@ (AWorship Allaah@), He does not mention any quality of His here.
According to the Hukamaa and the Mu`tazilas, the Qualities of Allah Ta`ala are the qualities themselves and according to the Mutakallimeen they are necessary entities.
Aqeeda # 20
We should know that all the Qualities of Allah Ta`ala are eternal (they have no beginning and no end).
Even if the creation were not created, then the Quality of creation would still be existent in Allah Ta`ala, because this Quality is an eternal Quality in Allah Ta`ala. The Quality of creation in Allah Ta`ala is not dependant on the creation=s coming into existence, rather, the creation=s coming into existence is dependant upon His Quality of creation. If Allah Ta`ala did not have the Quality of creation, then how would the creation have come into being?
Aqeeda # 21
We should also know that the Qualities of Allah Ta`ala do not have any sequence.
Hence, it is not correct to say that first a certain Quality of Allah Ta`ala came and then the other. All His qualities are eternal and were always existent. It will be incorrect to say that first came the Quality of Knowledge and then the Quality of Power or vice versa. Allah Ta`ala always was Knowledgeable and Powerful.
Beliefs Related to Allah(from behishti zaiwar By Maulana Asharaf Ali Thanvi ra)
Aqeeda # 1
In the beginning, the entire universe was non-existent. Through the creation of Allâh, it came into existence.
Aqeeda # 2
Allâh Ta'âla is One. He is not dependent on anyone. He has not given birth to anyone, nor was He begotten. He does not have any wife. There is no one equal to Him.
Aqeeda # 3
He has been since eternity and will remain till eternity.
Aqeeda # 4
There is nothing similar to Him. He is unique.
Aqeeda # 5
He is alive. He has power over everything. There is nothing that is beyond His knowledge. He sees and hears everything. He speaks, but His speech is not like ours. He does whatever He wishes and there is no one to s or reprimand Him. He alone is worthy of being worshipped. He has no partner. He is merciful to His servants. He is the lord. He is free of all blemishes. He is the one who saves His servants from all calamities. He is the possessor of honour and greatness. He is the creator of all things; nothing has created Him. He is the forgiver of sins. He is all-powerful. He gives in abundance. He is the one who gives sustenance. He decreases the sustenance of whoever He wishes and increases the sustenance of whoever He wishes. He humiliates whoever He wishes and elevates whoever He wishes. He gives honour to whoever He wishes and disgraces whoever He wishes. He is just. He is extremely tolerant and forbearing. He values and rewards service and worship rendered to Him. He accepts duas (supplications). He is all-encompassing. He is the ruler over everyone and no one is a ruler over Him. No work of His is devoid of wisdom. He fulfils the needs of everyone. He is the one who created everyone and He is the one who will bring all back to life on the day of qiyâmah. He is the one who gives life and He causes death. Everyone knows Him through signs and attributes. No one can know the essence of His being. He accepts the repentance of the sinners. He punishes those who deserve punishment. He is the one who gives guidance. Whatever happens in this universe occurs under His order. Without His order, even an atom cannot move. He does not sleep nor does He slumber. He does not get weary of protecting the entire universe. He is the one who is keeping everything in control. He has all good and beautiful qualities. There is no bad or defective quality in Him, nor is there any blemish in Him.
Aqeeda # 6
All His qualities are from eternity and will remain till eternity. No quality of His can ever disappear.
Aqeeda # 7
He is free from the qualities of the creation. Wherever such qualities have been mentioned in the Quran or Hadith, we leave the meanings of them to Allâh. He is the one who knows the reality of these things. We believe in these things without delving into them and have the conviction that whatever their meanings may be, they are correct. And this is the best way of looking at these things. Alternatively, we could give them some appropriate meaning with which we could get an understanding of them.
Aqeeda # 8
Whatever good or evil that takes place in the world, Allâh Ta'âla knows of it from eternity; and according to His knowledge He brings it into existence. This is what is meant by taqdir (pre-destination). There is a lot of mysterious wisdom in creating even evil things. Everyone is not aware of this wisdom.
Aqeeda # 9
Allâh Ta'âla has given man an understanding and the power of choice with which he chooses between good and evil. However, man does not have the power to bring anything into existence of his own accord. Allâh Ta'âla is pleased with good deeds and displeased with evil deeds.
Aqeeda # 10
Allâh Ta'âla has not ordered man to do anything which is beyond his power.
Aqeeda # 11
Allâh Ta'âla is not bound by anything. Whatever mercy He shows is solely out of His kindness and virtue.