IBADAAT -> Sadqa-e-Fitar
- Sadaqatul fitr is wajib on the following persons:
- The person upon whom zakat is wajib.
- The person upon whom zakat is not wajib but who has wealth equal to the nisab of zakat over and above his basic needs. This is irrespective of whether the wealth is for the purposes of trade or not and irrespective of whether he had it in his possession for a full year or not.
- A person has a massive house, very expensive clothing which does not have any gold or silver lace on it, he has a few servants, he has lots of furniture and other items but does not have any jewellery, and all these items are in use. Sadaqatul fitr is not wajib on such a person. Alternatively, he has certain items which are over and above his basic needs, some of his clothing has gold or silver lace on it, and he also has some jewellery. However, all these items do not reach the nisab of zakat. Sadaqatul fitr is also not wajib on such a person.
- A person owns two houses. He lives in one, and the other is either empty or given out on rent. This house is over and above his basic need. Therefore, if its value is equal to the nisab of zakat, sadaqatul fitr will be wajib on him. It is also not permissible to give zakat to such a person. However, if this person is dependent on this second house, it will be considered to be a basic necessity and sadaqatul fitr will not be wajib on him. It will be permissible for him to accept zakat and to give zakat to him as well. In short, sadaqatul fitr is not wajib on a person who is permitted to receive zakat and other wajib forms of sadaqah. As for the one who is not permitted to receive such charities, sadaqatul fitr will be wajib on him.
- A person has some wealth that is over and above his basic needs. However, he is also in debt. In such a case, his debts should be deducted from his wealth. If the balance of his wealth equals the nisab of zakat, sadaqatul fitr will be wajib on him. But if it falls short of the nisab, sadaqatul fitr will not be wajib.
- Sadaqatul fitr becomes wajib at the time of fajr on the day of eid ul-fitr. If a person passes away before the entry of fajr time, sadaqatul fitr will not be wajib on him nor will it be given from his wealth.
- It is best to give the sadaqatul fitr before going to the eid -gah. If it is not given before, there will be no harm in giving it after the eid salat.
- If a person gives his sadaqatul fitr before the day of eid, i.e. in Ramadan, it will be fulfilled. It is not necessary to give it a second time.
- If a person does not give his sadaqatul fitr on or before the day of eid, he will not be absolved from this duty. He will have to fulfil it at some time or the other.
- Sadaqatul fitr is wajib only on oneself and not on behalf of someone else: neither on one's children, one's parents, one's husband nor anyone else.
- If a small child receives some wealth through inheritance or some other way, and this wealth equals the nisab, sadaqatul fitr should be given from this wealth of his. But if the child is born on the day of eid after the time of fajr sets in (dawn), sadaqatul fitr will not be wajib on him.
- Sadaqatul fitr is wajib on those who fast in Ramadan and also on those who missed out some fasts due to some reason or the other. There is no difference in ruling between the two.
- If a person wishes to give any other dry grocery such as gram or rice, he should give an amount that equals the value of the amount of wheat or barley that has been mentioned above.
- It is best to give the value of the wheat or barley in cash instead of the actual wheat or barley.
- The sadaqatul fitr of one person could be given to one poor person or distributed among several poor persons.
- It is also permissible to give the sadaqatul fitr of several persons to one single poor person.
- Those who are entitled to receive zakat are also entitled to receive sadaqatul fitr.
- If the marriage of an immature girl is performed and she is sent to her husband's house, sadaqatul fitr will be wajib on her if she is rich. But if she is poor, we will have to see if she is old enough to serve her husband and at the same time old enough to be in his company. If she is old enough for both these things, sadaqatul fitr will not be wajib on her, her husband nor her father. But if she is not capable to do both these things, sadaqatul fitr will be wajib on her father. If she is not sent to her husband's house as yet, sadaqatul fitr will be wajib on her father irrespective of whether she is old enough to do both the above or not.